Paragraph 54: «Right now, you are not encouraging Afghanistan`s expectations that the United States will expand military aid.» We support the sustainability of the current Afghan government through technical assistance and loans from the Export-Import Bank. Export-Import Bank recently agreed to extend a new $18.5 million development loan to Afghanistan. Shortly after the creation of Pakistan in 1947, U.S. concerns about Soviet expansionism in the region and Pakistan`s desire to help with security against a perceived threat by India triggered a military alliance between the two countries. Washington and Islamabad signed a defence assistance agreement in 1954 and military aid soon began to flow to Pakistan. But as this chronology shows, this relationship has been turbulent over the years. While military coups and wars with India led to U.S. sanctions and a burden on relations, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 brought the U.S. and Pakistan`s military and secret services into partnership.
With Saudi Arabia, in the 1980s, they worked secretly to support the Afghan resistance, the mujahideen, against the Soviets. After the withdrawal of the Soviet Union, the alliance cooled. In October 1990, the United States blocked the delivery of dozens of new F-16 fighter jets in protest at Pakistan`s undclared nuclear weapons program; Pakistan`s 1998 nuclear test led to a new wave of sanctions from Washington. Meanwhile, geopolitical changes brought about by the end of the Cold War have led Washington to become increasingly intimate with Pakistan`s sworn enemy, India. It is possible that some of our friends abroad may be disoriented by this reaction. You may be wondering: isn`t the military aid given to India by Pakistan`s allies exclusively for the fight against Communist China? Didn`t India promise not to use these weapons against Pakistan? Didn`t the United States and Britain also assure that if India used these weapons in an aggression against Pakistan, it would act to thwart the aggression? Are these safeguards not sufficient to protect Pakistan from the possible abuse of Western weapons against them? So why can they, can they inquire, alert the Pakistanis? In December of this year — although Pakistan had never made a pact with the United States or received military assistance until then — Nehru suggested that he could not continue the agreements established in the joint communiqué on Kashmir, because «the whole context in which these agreements were concluded will change when military aid [to Pakistan] came from the United States.» [iii] Clearly, Pakistan could not allow Mr. Nehru to dictate his foreign policy. In May 1954, Pakistan signed the Mutual Defence Assistance Agreement with the United States. From that date on, the fact that the Indian Prime Minister would reject the joint communiqué on Kashmir became an obvious conclusion. Pakistan`s efforts to save him finally failed when the prime ministers last met in May 1955.
by. 49. «Encourage Pakistan`s participation in any advocacy association that serves the interests of the United States of your kind. Priority should be given to the creation of such an arrangement between Pakistan and Turkey. Pakistan`s cooperation agreement with Turkey, signed on 19 February, is an important step towards participation in a defence association that will serve the United States.